South Africa

In South Africa, one finds the the world's most dramatic landscapes, a unique wealth of animal and plant life, a treasure of gold, diamonds and other minerals, and a kaleidoscope of fascinating cultures.

Nature's tools of creation, the wind, sun, ice and rain, have worked a special magic.  There are extremes of deserts, savannas, snow-covered mountains, grasslands, high forests and tropical mangrove swamps.  Within these climatic zones, Earth's most diverse plant population flourishes.  South Africa is also the home of big game, a hosts birds as varied as the vast range of habitats and foods that nature has prepared for them. 

It is this variety of South Africa's fascinating and diverse peoples that is its great asset.  South Africa is often called the cradle of civilization, for this is where archaeologists discovered 2.5 million-year-old fossils of our earliest ancestors, as well as 100,000 year old remains of modern man.

Although South Africans come from many cultural traditions, they belong to one nation, a dynamic blend of age-old customs and modern ways, building a new South African society to create a better life for all


The People


The results of the second democratic Census (Census 2001) were released in July 2003.


On the night of 10 October 2001 there were 44.819.778 people in South Africa. Of these, 79% classified themselves as African; 9,6% as white; 8.9% as coloured; and 2.5% as Indian/Asian.


A total of 21.685.415 people in South Africa are male, and 23.662.839 female.


The South African population consists of the following groups: the Nguni people (consisting of the Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi); the Sotho-Tswana people; who include the Southern, Northern and Western Sotho (Tswana); the Tsonga; the Venda; Afrikaners; the English; Coloureds; Indians; and those who have immigrated to South Africa from the rest of Africa, Europe and Asia and maintain a strong cultural identity. A few members of the Khoi and San also live in South Africa.




Almost 80% of South Africa' population adheres to the Christian faith. Other major religious groups are the Hindus, Muslims and Jews. A minority of South Africa's population does not belong to any of the major religions, but regard themselves as traditionalists or of no specific religious affiliation.  Freedom of worship is guaranteed by the Constitution, and official policy is one of non-interference in religious practices.

Link to Statistics SA 




The South African Constitution, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), states that everyone has the right to use the language and to participate in the cultural life of his or her choice. but no one may do so in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights. Each person has a right to instruction in the language of his or her choice where this is reasonably practicable.


To cater for South Africa's diverse peoples, the Constitution provides for 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga. 


Recognizing the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages, the Constitution expects the Government to take positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages. According to the Census figures, the five most commonly-spoken home languages are IsiZulu (22.9%); IsiXhosa (17.9%); Afrikaans (14.4%); Sepedi (9.2%) and English (8.6%).




The Republic of South Africa occupies the southernmost part of the African continent, stretching latitudinally from 22 to 35S and longitudinally from 17 to 33 E.


Its surface area is 1,219,090 km. It has common boundaries with the republics of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, while the Republic of Mozambique and the Kingdom of Swaziland lie to the north-east. Completely enclosed by South African territory in the south-east, is the Kingdom of Lesotho.


To the west, south and east, South Africa borders on the Atlantic and southern Indian oceans. Isolated, 1,920 km. south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.



The Seas

South Africa is surrounded by sea to the west, south and east and has a lengthy coastline. This coastline is swept by two major ocean currents the Mozambique Agulhas and the Benguela systems. The former is a warm, south-flowing current skirting the east and south coasts as far as Cape Agulhas. The Benguela Current is cold and flows northwards as far as southern Angola along the west coast.


The contrast in temperature between these two currents partly accounts for important differences in climate and vegetation between the east and west coasts of South Africa. It also causes big differences in marine life, because the cold waters of the west coast are much richer in oxygen, nitrates, phosphates and plankton than those of the east coast.


For this reason, the South African fishing industry is centered on the west coast.



The Coasts

The coastline itself is an even, closed one with few bays or indentations naturally suitable for harbors. The only ideal natural harbor along some 3,000 km. of coastline is Saldanha Bay on the west coast. However, the area lacks fresh water and offers no natural lines of penetration to the interior.


Most river mouths are unsuitable for use as harbors because large sand bars block entry for most of the year. These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers. Only the largest rivers, such as the Orange and Limpopo, maintain narrow permanent channels through the bars. For much the same reasons, the country has no navigable rivers.



Relief Features

The surface area of South Africa falls into two major physiographic features: the interior plateau, and the land between the plateau and the coast.


Forming the boundary between these two areas is the Great Escarpment, the most prominent and continuous relief feature in the country. Its height above sea level varies from approximately 1,500 m in the dolerite-capped Roggeveld scarp in the south-west to a height of 3,482 m in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg.


Inland from the Escarpment lies the interior plateau, which is the southern continuation of the great African plateau stretching north to the Sahara. The plateau itself is characterized by wide plains with an average height of 1,200 m above sea level.



Climatic Features

The subtropical location, on either side of 30S, accounts for the warm temperate conditions so typical of South Africa.


The country also falls squarely within the subtropical belt of high pressure, making it dry, with an abundance of sunshine.


The wide expanses of ocean on three sides of South Africa have a moderating influence on its climate. More apparent, however, are the effects of the warm Agulhas and cold Benguela currents along the east and west coasts respectively. While Durban (east coast) and Port Nolloth (west coast) lie more or less on the same latitude, there is a difference of at least 6C in their mean annual temperatures.


Gale-force winds are frequent on the coasts, especially in the south-western and southern coastal areas.



Temperature conditions in South Africa are characterized by three main features. Firstly, temperatures tend to be lower than in other regions at similar latitudes, for example, North Africa and Australia. This is primarily due to the greater elevation above sea level of the subcontinent.


Secondly, despite a latitudinal span of 13 degrees, average annual temperatures are remarkably uniform throughout the country. Owing to the increase in the height of the plateau towards the north-east, there is hardly any increase in temperature from south to north as might be expected. The third feature is the striking contrast between temperatures on the east and west coasts.


Temperatures above 32C are fairly common in summer, and frequently exceed 38C in the lower Orange River valley and the Mpumalanga Lowveld.



Frost, Humidity and Fog

Frost often occurs on the interior plateau during cold, clear winter nights, with  ice forming on still pools and in water-pipes.The frost season is longest (from April to October) over the eastern and southern plateau areas bordering on the Escarpment. Frost decreases to the north, while the coast is virtually frost-free.


Average annual relative humidity readings show that, in general, the air is driest over the western interior and over the plateau. Along the coast, the humidity is much higher and at times may rise to 85%. Low stratus clouds and fog frequently occur over the cool west coast, particularly during summer.


The only other area that commonly experiences fog is in the "mist belt" along the eastern foothills of the Escarpment.



South Africa is famous for its sunshine. Generally speaking, April and May are usually the most pleasant months. The rainy season over the summer-rainfall region has then ended, while it has not yet really begun in the winter-rainfall area. The hot summer weather has abated and the winds are lighter than during the rest of the year. In certain areas, however, notably the hot, humid KwaZuluNatal coast, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, June and July are the ideal holiday months.




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